The Rock of Living Water

And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them: and the rock was Christ (1 Corinthians 10:4).

The situation in Corinth was dire. Paul knew that the brethren needed to understand the consequences of disobeying God, and he turned to the story of Israel’s exodus and wanderings in the desert to illustrate God’s reactions to sin. To make his point clear, Paul wrote of the exodus and the wanderings of Israel in Christian terms through allegory. In so doing, Paul presented a wonderful way to understand Israel’s exodus and wanderings in Christian terms, and also to understand our own walk with Christ in terms of Israel’s exodus and wanderings.

One such aspect of Israel’s wanderings is illustrated in 1 Corinthians 10:4: Israel drinking from the “spiritual rock.” This rock “followed” them, and the “Rock was Christ!” Paul provides much that requires spiritual insight and understanding!

Paul refers to the story found in Exodus 17:1-7 when Israel is in the wilderness. They have no water and demand drink from Moses. Moses asks why they quarrel with him and test God, and they continue to grumble, asking why they were brought out of Egypt to die of thirst in the wilderness. God tells Moses to strike the rock, and water came forth from it to drink. The place would be known as Massah and Meribah, the place where Israel tested God. Moses will later strike another rock to provide water for Israel, although he was commanded merely to speak to it (Numbers 20:2-12).

When we read of Israel’s wanderings in the wilderness, we must not think of wildernesses with which we are familiar, with trees and birds and the like. The wildernesses in which Israel wandered were deserts, quite inhospitable, and on their own insufficient to sustain Israel’s numbers. While Israel wandered in the wilderness, they were entirely dependent on God for food and water; He always provided for them.

We may understand from Exodus 16:2-5 that manna, the food with which God sustained Israel, fell like dew from the heavens. The water in Exodus 17:1-7, however, comes from striking a rock, an object not normally known for retaining water. Why did God intend for Moses to provide water for Israel through a rock? And how does Moses’ striking the rock that provides water correlate with Christ’s being a rock? We must understand that the rock of water of Exodus 17:1-7 represents a type of which Jesus is the substance.

John recorded for us an interaction between Jesus and a woman of Samaria in John 4:4-26 that introduces us to the concept of “living water.” Jesus sits at a well and requests water from this woman of Samaria, and when she asks Him why He would make such a request from a Samaritan, He responds by indicating that if she knew who He really was, she would ask for and receive “living water” (John 4:4-10). In the following exchanges it becomes clear that Jesus speaks spiritually while the Samaritan woman thinks physically. She would love to no longer need to drink water and carry it home from the well: but Jesus is not speaking of physical water! He indicates that the water He offers becomes a spring that wells up within a man to eternal life (John 4:14). While the Samaritan woman ends up believing in Jesus as the Messiah, it is not clear whether she ever understands His meaning.

Jesus later proclaims a similar message in the Temple, crying out that those who thirst should come to Him for drink, and from him should flow rivers of living water in John 7:37-38. From this proclamation we may better understand what Jesus meant by “living water”. Jesus is the source of eternal life for all who believe in Him, and the “living water” represents the Word, the way of salvation, which Jesus manifested in the world (John 1:1, 14). God’s message of salvation and eternal life in the Son refreshes the believer who then has no need for refreshment from another.

The idea of Christ as a rock is presented in other Scriptures. Jesus represents the “chief cornerstone” that is rejected by builders but accepted by God, as prophesied in Psalm 118:22-23. Jesus also represents the foundation of the faith, as Paul establishes in 1 Corinthians 3:11; likewise, the confession that He is the Christ represents the rock upon which Christ builds His church (Matthew 16:18). We may see that the New Testament presents Jesus both as the source of “living water” and also as a Rock, the foundation of our faith.

We may gain understanding of Paul’s meaning in 1 Corinthians 10:4 through conflating all the imagery described above. The New Testament speaks of Jesus as a Rock and as a source of living water, and the Old Testament speaks of Israel being sustained by water provided by God through the striking of a rock. Thanks to Paul’s blending of the two, we may understand Jesus as the Rock, struck to provide living water leading to eternal life for those who believe. Let us ever seek to drink living water from Christ the Lord, observing His commandments to the glory and honor of God the Father!

Ethan R. Longhenry

Sanctifying God

And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, “Because ye believed not in me, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them” (Numbers 20:12).

It was another waterless place in the desert (Numbers 20:1). The refrain had grown to be quite typical.

“Would that we had died! Why did you bring us out of Egypt to kill us by thirst?”

Numbers 20:3-6 sounds a lot like Exodus 16:3 and Exodus 17:1-2. The people grumble because their memories are quite short. Moses entreats God, and God provides the necessary food or drink.

Yet things are much different in Numbers 20. This time Moses and Aaron bear the brunt of God’s hot displeasure. It is this instance at Meribah that leads to the curse of Moses and Aaron. They will not enter the Promised Land.

But why did this curse come about? Why does God so strongly censure these two men who have experienced such indignity for so long at the hands of God’s people?

God told them quite specifically to speak to the rock, and the rock would bring forth water (Numbers 20:8). But Moses did not speak to the rock. He struck the rock– twice (Numbers 20:11).

Is this the cause of God’s hot displeasure? It’s entirely possible. But it would seem a bit odd. After all, this is the same Moses who killed an Egyptian (Exodus 2:12) and was quite recalcitrant about following God’s will (Exodus 3-4). Furthermore, at Rephidim, God told him to strike the rock (Exodus 17:6), so there was a sort of precedent for the action. Aaron, for his part, was complicit in the Golden Calf incident, even lying about the calf’s origin (Exodus 32:1-4, 22-24). These things seem a bit more serious than striking vs. speaking.

But Moses and Aaron did more than just strike the rock. They spoke.

And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock, and he said unto them, “Hear now, ye rebels; shall we bring you forth water out of this rock?” (Numbers 20:10).

Notice the way that Moses words this question: shall we bring water out of this rock?

We?

What powers do Moses or Aaron have to bring water out of the rock?

We cannot know for certain whether Moses’ use of the first person plural pronoun was a thoughtless remark or whether he was intentionally trying to present the idea that he and Aaron were in some way responsible for the water about to come from the rock. But we do know that God took great offense at the idea. The water was not coming from Moses or Aaron at all. It was coming from the hand of God.

The statement, however consciously uttered, demonstrates that Moses is identifying himself quite strongly on the side of the Almighty, and even presuming to have a hand in things that the Almighty is doing. For that he receives most deserved censure. Such a statement betrays a belief in the efforts of Moses, not trust in God. Moses and Aaron did not demonstrate to the people their own dependence on God. They did not sanctify the name of God among the people in this matter. And, lest there be any later confusion, Moses and Aaron would not make it to the Promised Land– there is a distinction between the LORD God and Moses/Aaron.

This is a good example for us (cf. 1 Corinthians 10:1-12). It is right and proper for believers in Christ to strive to be holy as God is holy and to seek to conform themselves to the image of the Son (1 Peter 1:16, Romans 8:29). Nevertheless, there is always a difference between God working through us and our working. There is only room for three within the Trinity– the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit– and none of us are any of these Three. It is not about us, our promotion of ourselves, or our work. In the end, it is all about God and His glory being proclaimed, and that, in part, through us (cf. 1 Peter 1:6-9, 4:11).

Therefore, we are never saved purely by our own effort– that is impossible (cf. Romans 1-3). We, ourselves, do not convert anyone– we are servants who proclaim the message, and God gives the increase (cf. 1 Corinthians 3:5-8). We are not the ones sustaining or nourishing the church, Christ’s body– we have the pleasure of being part of that body and being sustained by our Lord (cf. Ephesians 5:22-33).

The great sin of Moses and Aaron was that they got so caught up on being on the Lord’s side that they confused their own part with the Lord’s part. It is good and right for us to seek to be on the Lord’s side. But let us always remember who we are, and, just as importantly, who we aren’t, and do not presume that God working through us is our work that we can claim for ourselves. Let us always serve God, remembering to sanctify Him and not ourselves!

Ethan R. Longhenry