The Second Commandment

“Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them” (Exodus 20:4-5a).

YHWH has delivered His people from slavery and bondage (Exodus 6-14), and has already provided the first command– Israel was to have no other gods before/beside YHWH (Exodus 20:3).

The second command is like it– Israel shall not make a “graven image” or a “likeness of any thing” so as not to bow down to it or serve it (Exodus 20:4-5a).

In the ancient Near Eastern context, of which Israel was a part, this command makes sense and is entirely necessary. Pretty much every culture believed in various gods– and every god had his or her representation. Dagon had his statue (1 Samuel 5:2-4); the Asherah was a wooden pillar (Judges 6:25-26). While some people might have actually believed that the statue was their god, most understood it as a representation of what their god really was.

YHWH, as the One True God, the Creator God, is utterly distinct. His very name– “Yahweh”– does not come with some meaning about power or lordship. Instead, it means “the Existent One.” YHWH does not need to have some “power name.” He exists; that is sufficient. And, as Paul will later explain, since God exists, and in Him all people live and dwell and have their being, God cannot really be represented by any image of any creature or anything of the sort (Acts 17:28-29).

Therefore, as Isaiah will later make very clear, if you can fashion a “god,” it ceases to have any real power (cf. Isaiah 44:9-20). If you can imagine it, build it, or even bow down to it, it’s not really God– it’s an idol of some form or another.

This idea was quite strange to people in the days of Israel. In order to serve God in truth they would have to act differently from every other nation in the world. The pressure of being distinct in this way proved too much– before Israel even makes it to Canaan, they serve Baal of Peor (Numbers 25:1-3). The story of the next five hundred years of Israel often features Israel’s service to other gods, bowing down to statues (cf. 2 Kings 17:7-23). This, in part, led to the exile of Israel and Judah.

Nevertheless, we must notice two things: first, that YHWH already commanded Israel to not have any other gods beside Him, and second, that He does not explicitly mention any other gods in the second commandment. This is due to a much more insidious form of idolatry that also overwhelmed Israel.

It would have been one thing if Israel made statues of other gods and bowed down to them– still wrong, indeed, still a violation of the first commandment– but Israel dared to make images and to call those images YHWH, attempting to represent the incomparable and transcendent Creator of the universe with a statue of a golden calf.

It first took place while Moses was on Mount Sinai (Exodus 32:1-4); it would happen again in the days of Jeroboam son of Nebat king of Israel (1 Kings 12:26-33). And it is precisely this thing which concerns God in the second commandment.

The image of the golden calf became too pervasive, especially in the Kingdom of Israel. Even though Jehu removed the idolatrous service of Baal, he left the golden calves as they stood (cf. 2 Kings 10:26-31). This idolatry is one of the reasons given by God as to why He exiled Israel (2 Kings 17:22-23).

Throughout time many have wondered why people who knew better than to serve other gods still bowed down to the golden calf. The answer is probably a bit more simple than we would like to imagine– once the image is in one’s head, it is very difficult to remove it. Jeroboam makes the golden calves and tells Israel that these are the gods that delivered them from Egypt (1 Kings 12:28). Therefore, when the people hear all the stories about YHWH and His saving acts, they start thinking of the golden calf. The mental association is there throughout time. Even if a prophet stands up in the name of YHWH to speak, when he speaks of YHWH, of what will the people think but that golden calf? And if any declaration is made about destroying the calf, the people will think that you are destroying YHWH, and such is intolerable!

In reality, it would have been stranger had Israel given up the calves and began going to Jerusalem to the Temple to bow down before YHWH there. Images have more power over us than we would like to admit.

And therein is the key to understanding the challenge of the second commandment for us today. While it is true that we are not likely to make an actual, physical image of something and bow down to it, such does not make us immune from making mental images to which we bow down metaphorically.

It is true that we have to have some mental conception about something about God. We obtain that from His Word– God as love, God as holy, God as represented fully in Jesus of Nazareth (1 John 4:8, Leviticus 19:2, Colossians 2:9). But we get ourselves into the same trouble Israel did when we start making up our own definitions of the way God “must be.”

We can imagine that God “must be” a certain way– loving like a grandparent, someone who would never allow us to suffer pain, someone who privileges us and/or our nation, or a thousand other things– but there is no reason at all why God “must be” that way. God only “must be” what He is, and we only understand as much as He has revealed about Himself in that regard. Whenever we limit God by our declarations of how we “must be” we act no differently than Israel did– we have just set up our own “golden calf,” our own view of God to worship.

Therefore, when we think of God, we must seek to understand His nature as best we can from His revelation of Himself in Scripture, and know for certain that God is no thing– no thing we can make, imagine, or devise. Let us understand that God is the Existent One, and serve Him today!

Ethan R. Longhenry

Is it Vain to Serve God?

“Your words have been stout against me,” saith the LORD.
Yet ye say, “What have we spoken against thee?”
Ye have said, “It is vain to serve God; and what profit is it that we have kept his charge, and that we have walked mournfully before the LORD of hosts?” (Malachi 3:13-14).

People tend to prefer and value instant gratification. Sure, there are some things for which people are willing to wait for a little time, but on the whole, we want results, and we want them now. We do not want to wait in line, we do not want to wait to buy things later, and we certainly do not like being held in suspension.

If humans cannot stand waiting, then it stands to reason that humans have an even harder time tolerating seemingly constant failure. In the minds of many, insanity is defined as “doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result.” In many facets of life, that statement is reasonable and accurate.

But what happens when it comes to waiting on God?

Human beings want things right now. They want change to have happened already. Yet God operates in His good time, for He is not bound to time like we are (cf. 2 Peter 3:8). We want everything right now, but God is patiently transforming those who seek to be His obedient servants (cf. Romans 8:29, 12:1-2). It does not happen overnight– but it does happen!

But how do we feel when we look out in the world and think that nothing is going right? What happens when it seems like things are worse for us because we try to serve God? How should we then respond?

We can see how the post-exilic Jews responded to this situation. By all accounts they were less sinful than their fathers, and yet while their fathers lived in a free and independent Judah, they remained under the hand of the Persians. It seemed to them that the wicked and arrogant prospered while the righteous were distressed and humbled (cf. Malachi 2:17, 3:15). Their response was natural: why bother serving God? In their eyes, it was vanity to serve God– they were no better off for it!

This response is as entirely understandable as it is misguided. It is the result of the myopic tunnel vision that we humans often experience– we focus on all of our challenges and difficulties and the oppression and the injustice in the world and declare God unjust, or believe that since we prayed fervently for some noble cause and yet still have failed that God has abandoned us, while all around us the blessings of God in life, both physical and spiritual, abounds (cf. Genesis 1:1-2:4, John 3:16, Ephesians 1:3). If we understand that God is the Author and Sustainer of Life, how could we even begin to think that it is vain to serve Him?

It is important for us to remember that our work in the Lord is never in vain (1 Corinthians 15:58). It may not lead to the immediate results we desire, either in terms of our own growth and development or the encouragement of other souls, but its long-term impact may be vast indeed. Even if it has little impact on ourselves or others, it works within God’s greater plan and His great will (Ephesians 1:3-11), and that is glorious. As Jesus indicates in Luke 18:1-8, there is great value in persistence in prayer, and we should not assume that our prayers fail because we do not immediately see changes.

We may find that things seem to go worse for us once we have turned to righteousness and seek the will of God. But we must remember in such circumstances that it is only a reversal on the surface. Consider the image we see in Revelation– if you just read Revelation 13, for instance, you would have good reason to despair if you were one of the members of the seven churches of Asia. The world of Revelation 13 was the “real world” in which you would have inhabited. Nevertheless, the picture is given in Revelation 12, 14-19, of what else is going on, and that perspective changes everything: Satan’s hold on the powers of earth is his desperate last stand, and it too will fail in the end. No matter how bleak it might have seemed on the earth, God was still ruling in heaven.

And so it is with us today. It is easy to get lost in the surface matters and the temporary setbacks, get frustrated and discouraged, and wonder if there is any value in serving God. Yet let us remember that God is still ruler in heaven, that He is accomplishing many great things, and that our work in the Lord is never in vain. Let us be patient and faithful servants of God, knowing that He does all things well (cf. Mark 7:37)!

Ethan R. Longhenry

It Is Written…

And Jesus answered unto him, “It is written, ‘Man shall not live by bread alone’…”
And Jesus answered and said unto him, “It is written, ‘Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve’…”
And Jesus answering said unto him, “It is said, ‘Thou shalt not make trial of the Lord thy God'” (Luke 4:4, 8, 12).

As Jesus submits to the temptations of the Devil in the wilderness, it is interesting to note the way that Jesus responds to each temptation. With each temptation, He responds with “it is written,” quoting Old Testament Scripture.

As the Incarnate Word (John 1:1, 14), Jesus has no such obligation to do so. He has the authority to say “no” to the Evil One on His own merit (cf. Matthew 7:29). Nevertheless, He responds by appealing to a standard beyond Himself– the revealed Word.

This is not the only time that Jesus makes reference to the Scriptures. In fact, He constantly appeals to the Scriptures when defending Himself against His critics (cf. Matthew 12:1-8, Matthew 19:3-6, Matthew 21:12-13, etc.). By appealing to the revealed Word, Jesus legitimates it and provides an example for us.

Almost twenty centuries have passed since Jesus, the Incarnate Word, walked the earth. The only place that we can find testimony regarding Jesus the Incarnate Word is within the written revealed Word, since all witnesses and apostles have now passed on (cf. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10, John 21:23). Therefore, the written revealed Word– the Scriptures as found in the Bible– are quite important for us! We learn about the life, death, resurrection, and lordship of the Incarnate Word within the Scriptures. We learn how to serve the risen Lord and live like the Incarnate Word through the message of Scripture (1 John 2:1-6). The Scriptures, as the written revealed Word, point to and help us understand the Incarnate Word, Jesus Christ, so that we may believe in Him and have life in His name (John 20:31).

The Scriptures are said to equip the man of God for every good work, appropriate for encouragement, exhortation, rebuke, correction, and instruction in righteousness (2 Timothy 3:16-17). It is evident, therefore, that we must know what the Scriptures teach if we are going to be able to believe in Jesus and to do His will (2 Timothy 2:15)!

Therefore, just as Jesus was prepared with an answer from Scripture for every temptation of the Devil, so must we prepare answers from Scripture for every argument and temptation that comes against us (2 Corinthians 10:5, 1 Peter 3:15). We must understand that just as Satan attempted to quote Scripture to Jesus and distort its purpose, many times people will also quote Scripture and distort its purpose. And, just as Jesus did, we must demonstrate with Scripture what is true, understanding all things within the sum of God’s truth (Psalm 119:160).

Jesus understood what was written in Scripture and was not afraid to quote it or live it. Let us be the same!

Ethan R. Longhenry

Our Conflict

For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world-rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places (Ephesians 6:12).

As Paul concludes the Ephesian letter, he encourages the brethren to resist the powers of evil through the use of the image of war. This passage has been used and abused ever since!

Paul does well at making clear that our conflict is not against “flesh and blood.” Some of the greatest travesties in human history involve men declaring that they were going out and fighting human wars in the name of Christ. Jesus and the Apostles never validated such conduct. We do not see any command or example that would justify any Christian taking up arms in the name of his faith in order to fight with his fellow man.

When believers in Christ start believing that their conflict is with flesh and blood (and this is by no means limited to actual physical war– it can also refer to conflict with governments, human institutions, and the like), the Enemy wins a double victory. First, since the believers are fighting against the wrong “enemy,” the real enemy– the spiritual forces of darkness– have the upper hand in keeping the souls they’ve won along with gaining a few believers’ souls along the way. Furthermore, by alienating souls from Christ or by killing them, potential recruits for the Lord’s cause are lost. This is a sad state indeed!

Nevertheless, despite the abuse of the image, the idea that we are at war with the spiritual forces of darkness in the heavenly realm is a potent one indeed. When we consider the vast power of our true Enemy, we recognize that we are not going to be able to stand against him alone (cf. Jeremiah 10:23). We are going to need all the help we can get, and that is why Paul encourages believers to be “strong in the Lord and in the strength of His might” (Ephesians 6:10). It is only through Christ that we will be able to overcome.

We also recognize that a state of war demands certain perspectives and attitudes. Just as soldiers must be properly trained and equipped for battle, we also must have a proper understanding of God’s word and must wear the armor of God (Ephesians 6:10-18). Just as soldiers fighting alongside each other develop bonds that endure for as long as life continues and are far deeper than most can understand in order to stay alive and keep one another alive, so also Christians are to have tight bonds in the faith, working together in order to stay spiritually alive and to keep each other spiritually alive (Hebrews 10:24-25, Galatians 6:1-3). Just as soldiers on the front lines must be constantly vigilant and singlemindedly devoted to the task before them, so Christians are to be vigilant against the schemes of the devil and devoted to God’s purposes (Ephesians 6:10-18, 1 Peter 4:7).

Yet, in the end, this is no ordinary war. We have not been instructed to make some great forward advance against the enemy. Instead, we are charged to “stand firm” (Ephesians 6:11, 13-14). We are to hold our ground– perhaps not to advance, but certainly not to run away!

We see this situation illustrated in the book of Revelation. Jesus encourages the brethren of the seven churches of Asia, providing understanding of the rewards waiting for those who “conquer” (Revelation 2-3). We are allowed to see that a great and mighty beast has arisen to stand against the believers and to persecute them– the Roman Empire (cf. Revelation 13-18). John does not leave us in doubt as to who stands behind this beast, inspiring and empowering him– it is the dragon, Satan, our enemy (Revelation 13:3-5). What were the Christians to do?

Notice that there is no scene in which the believers take up arms and fight the beast. In fact, we do not even see the brethren protesting the beast! Instead, the believers are more concerned to fight the power behind the beast– Satan, the great dragon– and they fight him and overcome him “because because of the blood of the Lamb, and because of the word of their testimony; and they loved not their life even unto death” (Revelation 12:11)! Believers stand firm, trusting in Jesus Christ, holding fast to the message of God, even to the point of death. That is how they fought the spiritual war with the evil one!

Jesus is the one who will come and cast the beast and the dragon into the lake of fire; sure, great armies follow Him, but they follow without weapons, and are spectators for the event (Revelation 19:11-20:10). Jesus will advance and destroy the power of evil; we must stand firm.

Let no one be deceived: we are in the midst of a great and terrible spiritual conflict. It is not a conflict in which we asked to participate, nor would we ever desire to have such a conflict. Nevertheless, the conflict has gone on long before our time and very well may continue long after we have passed on. Let us arise and fight the good fight of faith, keeping in mind with whom we are to fight and with whom we are not to fight (cf. 2 Timothy 4:7). Let us stand firm against the spiritual forces of darkness while doing all that we can to persuade those deceived by those powers to come out and join the Lord’s side. Let us stand firm, holding fast to the blood of the Lamb and the word of our testimony, doing all things, so that we may have the victory!

Ethan R. Longhenry

This Generation

“Whereunto then shall I liken the men of this generation, and to what are they like? They are like unto children that sit in the marketplace, and call one to another; who say,
‘We piped unto you, and ye did not dance; we wailed, and ye did not weep.’
For John the Baptist is come eating no bread nor drinking wine; and ye say, ‘He hath a demon.’
The Son of man is come eating and drinking; and ye say, ‘Behold, a gluttonous man, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners!’
And wisdom is justified of all her children” (Luke 7:31-35).

Jesus has sharp words for those in “this generation.” They were never satisfied– they always found some reason for not believing. Many did not approve of John the Baptist because he lived in the desert, eating locusts and honey, and not drinking, and preached righteousness (cf. Matthew 3:4, Luke 3:1-17). Jesus lived among the people, eating bread and drinking wine, and they condemned Him for doing that!

Jesus understands that, in the end, it does not matter what He does or does not do– the unconvinced will find reasons to justify being unconvinced. John’s statement toward the end of Revelation ought not be taken to extremes, but does present reality fairly well:

“He that is unrighteous, let him do unrighteousness still: and he that is filthy, let him be made filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him do righteousness still: and he that is holy, let him be made holy still” (Revelation 22:11).

In the end, it was only probably a very few people, if any, who were genuine seekers and yet disturbed by Jesus eating and drinking, and that with sinners. Those who were willing to consider who Jesus was and what He did would understand that He was performing His mission of seeking and saving the lost of Israel who could be redeemed (cf. Luke 19:1-8). People had really already made up their minds– they just then searched for whatever reason would work to justify it. The fact that Jesus ate and drank, and that with sinners, was an easy justification. So was the belief that He was born in Nazareth, and thus could not be the Messiah (cf. John 7:41, 52). The Pharisees were willing to ascribe His miracles to the power of Satan in order to “save face,” only to be more fully exposed (cf. Matthew 12:22-37)!

Is our generation that much different than His generation? Many people find reasons for not believing in Jesus. Perhaps you have some reasons that you do not believe that Jesus is the Christ. What are those reasons? Are they really legitimate reasons, or are they justifications to make you feel better about the decision you made in advance? Could any amount of evidence be provided to help you understand that Jesus really is all that the Scriptures say He is?

In the end, let us know that wisdom is indeed justified. Bad reasoning gets exposed. Desperate arguments are seen for what they really are. Let us be honest with ourselves: are deep-seated difficulties, for whatever reason, really worth the cost of the soul? Can we see that Jesus was a good man, and that He taught good things to which people should listen? If so, how can we deny that He is the Christ, the Son of the Living God, without saying that we think that an egomaniacal lunatic is a good teacher?

Anyone can come up with reasons to not accept what Jesus teaches. But are we willing to take another look and really explore not just what we believe, but also why we believe it, and to dispense with that which is false, even if it requires a change in our lives and a dose of humility?

Let us consider what Jesus taught and did and ask ourselves– are we like “this generation,” or will we step out, be a little different, and serve the risen Lord?

Ethan R. Longhenry

Our Waiting Glory

And there came one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls, who were laden with the seven last plagues; and he spake with me, saying, “Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the wife of the Lamb” (Revelation 21:9).

Most people, even if they do not know much about the Bible, have a definite picture in mind of what Heaven is like. Many people think of pearly gates and a city of gold. This view is reinforced by all kinds of spiritual songs that are sung. “We will walk on streets of purest gold,” according to Ira Stanphill’s “Mansions Over the Hilltop.” A lot of people think about Heaven and look forward to being in a large and magnificent city.

These images come from Revelation 21 where John describes the “new Jerusalem.” The city is described as a roughly 1,380 mile cube (Revelation 21:16) with a golden street, a jasper wall having foundations of precious stones (Revelation 21:17-20), and the glory of God shining brightly (Revelation 21:11). There is no night there and no Temple; the Father and the Son dwell there all the time (Revelation 21:22-25). It sounds like a great place to go!

Yet a major aspect of the image– and part of its encouraging message– is lost when we think that the “new Jerusalem” is a city to which God’s people go. The “new Jerusalem” is also “the Bride, the wife of the Lamb,” as we see above, and that Bride is the Church (Ephesians 5:22-32).

And what is the Church? The Church is nothing more than its constituents: people (1 Corinthians 12:12-28, 1 Peter 2:4-6)! Therefore, no one is going to be going to the city described– the redeemed of God will be the city!

No one is going to be walking the golden streets– those who conquer through the Lamb are the golden streets (cf. Revelation 21:7). The large city and the shining wall all represent the glory which God will bestow upon those who trusted in Him!

We ought to recognize that the picture of the “new Jerusalem” represents the best attempt that can be made of describing the indescribable, as is made evident from Romans 8:18 and 2 Corinthians 4:17:

For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed to us-ward.

For our light affliction, which is for the moment, worketh for us more and more exceedingly an eternal weight of glory.

How can anyone describe that “eternal weight of glory”? Human language fails. To a small, persecuted, and mostly poor group of believers, the most fantastic image that can be imagined is a large city full of great wealth. For those conversant in the Old Testament, a city of gold with the glory of kings coming into it evokes the days of Solomon and the glory days of Israel (cf. 1 Kings 3-10).

Therefore, when we consider the new Jerusalem of Revelation 21, we ought not think of it as a place to which we are going as much as the glory which God eagerly awaits to bestow upon all those who conquer through the blood of the Lamb and the word of their testimony (cf. Revelation 12:11). It is fantastic, wonderful, exhilarating, breathtaking, and beyond our wildest dreams.

This is, indeed, the call for the perseverance of the saints, and the invitation of Jesus, the Lamb of God. Do not go outside the city or remain outside the city in filth and defilement– obey God in Jesus Christ, be cleansed and purified in the blood of the Lamb, and let us not grow weary in pressing upward to be that city!

Ethan R. Longhenry

The Secret Things

The secret things belong unto the LORD our God; but the things that are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law (Deuteronomy 29:29).

We humans are curious to a fault. It does not matter if you speak to a child or an adult: tell someone that they cannot do something, and you have just challenged them to try. Humans keep trying to push every boundary– to learn more, to investigate more deeply, to plumb greater depths and ascend to greater heights. Many believe that there is limitless potential with human beings.

Yet we are the creation. Our brains, while magnificent in their complexity, are still finite. There are some things that we are just not going to be able to understand. There are some depths that we cannot plumb; some heights we will not climb.

Three of the hardest words for humans to say are, “I don’t know.” And yet, especially in many spiritual matters, they are very humble and powerful words.

God never intended to reveal everything to humanity– there are many things that we just cannot understand (Isaiah 55:9-10). They are the “secret things” that belong to God. He knows and understands, and we may gain a better understanding when we stand before Him.

Until then, however, there is nothing wrong with saying, “I don’t know,” when the Bible has not revealed it. How can God be Three in One, or One in Three? We don’t know. How will the resurrection take place, and what will we be? All we know is that we will be as Christ (1 John 3:2). Why is there evil and suffering? In the end, we can’t really know.

But we can know what God has revealed to us, and we are to be content with devoting ourselves to that. Let us diligently consider what can be known, and leave what cannot be known to God who knows all.

Ethan R. Longhenry

The Lord in Glory

And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And having turned I saw seven golden candlesticks; and in the midst of the candlesticks one like unto a son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about at the breasts with a golden girdle. And his head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire; and his feet like unto burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace; and his voice as the voice of many waters. And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength (Revelation 1:12-16).

Stop for just a moment and picture Jesus in your own mind.

Odds are your mental picture is highly influenced by one of two cultural presentations: a picture of Jesus suffering on a cross, or a picture of Jesus as a gentle, mild shepherd, either present with sheep or children.

We confess that we do not really know what Jesus would have looked like, save that He probably looked little like the pictures made of Him.  Regardless, most of our pictures of Him involve moments in His life and the qualities He espoused in life.

Yet Jesus is still alive, and is now Lord (Matthew 28:18).  Few, if any, when considering Jesus, would think about Him as John describes Him in Revelation.

John, in his vision, sees one “like a son of man,” with a long robe and a golden sash.  His hair is snow white and like wool.  His eyes are fiery, His feet are as refined bronze, from His mouth comes a two-edged sword, and His face shines as light.

It is no wonder that John falls before Jesus as one dead (Revelation 1:17)!  This presentation of Jesus is quite awe-inspiring.  Granted, the picture represents Jesus as the Ancient of Days (cf. Daniel 7), that is, God, who is holy and pure, the light of the world, and His word as the two-edged sword (John 1, Hebrews 4:12).

This is the picture of Jesus today: the most holy and pure God whose Word can give life or can kill.  If we are His servants, we can trust in Him and have no fear (cf. Revelation 1:17).  If He is for us, who can be against us (Romans 8:31-39)?

Let none be deceived: Jesus is not some absentee landlord.  He moves in the midst of His churches (cf. Revelation 1:12, 20).  He knows what goes on (cf. Revelation 2:2, 2:9, 2:13, etc.).  He is there, and He is watching.

When we think in our minds about Jesus, there are times to think about Jesus the Good Shepherd, and Jesus agonizing on the cross.  But it is good to also think about Jesus as the Lord of glory, in the midst of His church, a powerful and awesome sight to behold!

Let us serve our Lord and God!

Ethan R. Longhenry